If the sum of two angles is one right angle or 90°, then one angle is said to be complementary of the other. Thus, 25° and 65°; θ° and (90 - θ)° are complementary to each other.

Suppose a rotating line rotates about O in the anti-clockwise sense and starting from its initial position

OX−→−OX→ traces out angle ∠XOY = θ, where θ is acute.

Take a point P on OY−→−OY→ and draw PQ¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯PQ¯ perpendicular to OX. Let, ∠OPQ = α. Then, we have,

α + θ = 90°

or, α = 90° - θ.

Therefore, θ and α are complementary to each other.

Now, by the definition of trigonometric ratio,

From (i) and (iv) we have,

sin α = cos θ

or, sin (90° - θ) = cos θ;

From (ii) and (v) we have,

cos α = sin θ

or, cos (90° - θ) = sin θ;

From (iii) and (vi) we have,

And tan α = 1/tan θ

or, tan (90° - θ) = cot θ.

Similarly, csc (90° - θ) = sec θ;

sec (90° - θ) = csc θ

and cot (90° - θ) = tan θ.

Therefore,

Sine of any angle = cosine of its complementary angle;

Cosine of any angle = sine of its complementary angle;

Tangent of any angle = cotangent of its complementary angle.

**Corollary:**

Complementary Angles: Two angles are said to be complementary if their sum is 90°. Thus θ and (90° - θ) are complementary angles.

(i) sin (90° - θ) = cos θ (iii) tan (90° - θ) = cot θ (v) sec (90° - θ) = csc θ |
(ii) cos (90° - θ) = sin θ (iv) cot (90° - θ) = tan θ (vi) csc (90° - θ) = sec θ |

We know there are six trigonometrical ratios in trigonometry. The above explanation will help us to find the trigonometrical ratios of complementary angles.

**Example:**

Worked-out problems on trigonometrical ratios of complementary angles:

1. Without using trigonometric tables, evaluate tan65°cot25°tan65°cot25°

**Solution:**

tan65°cot25°tan65°cot25°

= tan65°cot(90°−65°)tan65°cot(90°−65°)

= tan65°tan65°tan65°tan65°, [Since cot (90° - θ) = tan θ]

= 1