Water and its Conservation


When pictures of earth are taken from space, our planet looks blue, green etc. Have you ever wondered why our planet looks more blue?

Water exists on our planet in all the three states - liquid, gaseous and solid state.  It covers about 71.4% of the Earth. This explains the color of our planet isn’t it?

Water is the most common liquid on earth, and, it is vital ingredient for all living forms on earth. Pure water has no smell, taste, or color. Lakes, oceans and rivers are made of water.


 Main sources of water:

The main sources of water are :

  • Groundwater
  • Surface water
  • Rainwater

Water Conservation:

Water is essential for life to continue and flourish on this planet, like any other natural resource, it is essential we take care of it and conserve it.

Water conservation begins with being mindful of the usage of water in simple ways like:

  • Close taps tightly after use.
  • Use sprinklers to water the plants and lawn.
  • Water can be conserved by harvesting rain water.

People use up our planets' fresh water faster than it can naturally be replenished so, save water for our earth, family and community.  

Conserving water in the olden days:

The traditional ways of water conserving, though less popular, are still in use and efficient.  Few traditional water conservation methods in India are.


Katta is a temporary structure made by binding mud and loose stones available locally. Built across small streams and rivers, this stone bund slows the flow of water, and stores a large amount (depending upon its height) during the dry months.

Sand Bores

Sand bores provide a safe alternative for farm irrigation without affecting groundwater. This technique uses the concept of extracting water retained by sand particles. Sand particles act as great water filters by retaining the salt content at bottom and gushing pure water out. White sand is believed to yield water clean enough for drinking too.

Bamboo Drip Irrigation

Innovated by tribes of north eastern states, this technique economically uses water during dry seasons. It is practiced in hilly areas where construction of ground channels is not possible due to sloppy and stony terrain. This arrangement taps spring water to irrigate fields. A network of channels made by bamboo pipes of various diameters (to control flow), allows downward flow of water by gravity

Plants and animals in water:

There are some plants and animals that can live in water.

Animals like seals, dolphins, crocodiles and turtles can live in water whereas sea grass, duckweed and algae are the examples of the plants that can live in water.


Irrigation has essentially been used since humans first began cultivating plants. Any sort of cultivated plant requires water in order to grow and thrive. Irrigation is a broad term referring to any means of delivering water to growing plants. It can take a number of different forms, from irrigation ditches to drip irrigation and more.

Types of Irrigation:

There are quite a few forms of irrigation.

  • The simplest is hand watering, which is simply pouring water over a plant and the soil surrounding it using a bucket or watering can.
  • Drip irrigation relies on the use of plastic pipes with tiny holes in them (drip hoses) designed specifically to “sweat” water out of them. This delivers a much more controlled amount of water to the plant, and reduces evaporation.


  1. Which water borne diseases are caused by polluted water?

Answer: Tuberculosis, dysentery and jaundice.

  1. List some simple methods to make water safe for consumption?


  • Boil the water before usage.
  • Do not dip your hands or fingers in drinking water.
  • Do not use the ground water located near drainage or sewage.
  • Tap water should be filtered and boiled well before use.
  • Always store the drinking water in a closed vessel.