Transportation:

 

Long ago our ancestors took days to reach from one place to another , they used to only walk and did not have any other means of transport. They carried goods either on their back or using animals.

For transport along water routes, boats were used from ancient times. To begin with, boats were simple logs of wood in which a hollow cavity could be made. Later, people learnt to put together different pieces of wood and give shapes to the boats. These shapes imitated the shapes of the animals living in water.

Invention of the wheel made a great change in modes of transport. The design of the wheel was improved over thousands of years. Animals were used to pull vehicles that moved on wheels.

Ancient units of measurements

In old civilizations, the length of a foot, the width of a finger, and the distance of a step were commonly used as different units of measurements.The people of the Indus valley civilization had used very good measurements of length, which is evident in excavations of perfect geometrical constructions.

People also used the "foot" as a unit of length in different parts of the world. The length of the foot used varied slightly from region to region. People measured a yard of cloth by the distance between the end of the outstretched arm and their chin.

In ancient India, small length measurements used were an angul (finger) or a mutthi (fist). Even today, we can see flower sellers using their forearm as a unit of length for garlands in many towns of India. Many such body parts continue to be in use as unit of length, when convenient.

However, everyone's body parts could be of slightly different sizes. This must have caused confusion in measurement. In 1790, the French created a standard unit of measurement called the metric system.