Natural Phenomena


Rain, thunder and lightening

Rain is liquid water in the form of droplets that have condensed from atmospheric water vapor and then becomes heavy enough to fall under gravity. Rain is a major component of the water cycle and is responsible for depositing most of the fresh water on the Earth. It provides suitable conditions for many types of ecosystems, as well as water for hydroelectric power plants and crop irrigation.

The major cause of rain production is moisture moving along three-dimensional zones of temperature and moisture contrasts known as weather fronts. If enough moisture and upward motion is present, precipitation falls from convective clouds (those with strong upward vertical motion) such as cumulonimbus (thunder clouds) which can organize into narrow rain bands.

In mountainous areas, heavy precipitation is possible where upslope flow is maximized within windward sides of the terrain at elevation which forces moist air to condense and fall out as rainfall along the sides of mountains.

When the charges are strong enough, the electricity is discharged as a bolt of lightning. While some lightning often precedes rain, the main event occurs as a downdraft starts and rain or other precipitation falls. Eventually, the downdraft overcomes the updraft and the storm dissipates, along with the lightning. Thunder is caused by lightning. When a lightning bolt travels from the cloud to the ground it actually opens up a little hole in the air, called a channel. Once then light is gone the air collapses back in and creates a sound wave that we hear as thunder.

Water in different states

Evaporation and condensation are two processes through which matter changes from one state to another. Matter can exist in three different states: solid, liquid, or gas. In evaporation, matter changes from a liquid to a gas. In condensation, matter changes from a gas to a liquid.

All matter is made of tiny moving particles called molecules. Evaporation and condensation happen when these molecules gain or lose energy in the form of heat.


Evaporation is the process by which water changes from a liquid to a gas or vapor. Evaporation is the primary pathway that water moves from the liquid state back into the water cycle as atmospheric water vapor.


Condensation is the change of the physical state of matter from gas phase into liquid phase, and is the reverse of evaporation. The word most often refers to the water cycle. It can also be defined as the change in the state of water vapor to liquid

Water when in contact with a liquid or solid surface or cloud condensation nuclei within the atmosphere.

Water cycle

The water cycle is the journey water takes as it moves from the land to the sky and back again. It follows the cycle of evaporation, condensation and precipitation.

Water cycle is defined as the way that water moves between being water vapor to liquid water and then back to water vapor. An example of water cycle is when water evaporates from oceans and then returns to the land in the form of rain.