Health And Diseases


Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well being. In other words, health is a state of physical, mental and social well being.

Community Issues Which Affect Our Health:

Clean and safe Environment: Public cleanliness impacts our health. If someone is working or living in a dirty neighborhood, he is at a greater risk of being affected by diseases.

Financial Condition: Economic conditions of the country and society is important for our health. A sound economy ensures that a person gets a job and wages for  his/her skills. Lack of earning can have negative effect on health.

Social Environment: If a person lives in an atmosphere of conflict, violence, distrust, he/she can naturally get sick.


The term ‘disease’ literally means uncomfortable or disturbed, without ease.

A condition in which the affected person is unable to carry out normal activities is termed as a disease.

Symptoms: Signs which give us a clue about a disease are called symptoms. For example; headache, fever, abdominal cramps, etc.

Diseases can be of two types – acute disease and chronic disease

Acute Disease

Chronic Disease

A disease which appears for a short duration is called acute disease. In most of the cases, an acute disease does not result in physical inability or weakness to regular functioning. Example: diarrhoea, flu, common cold, etc.

A disease which lasts for many years is called chronic disease. A chronic disease often results in inconvenience as in physical weakness or inability. Example: arthritis,  hypertension, tuberculosis, diabetes etc.

Types of Chronic Disease:

Infectious Disease: When a disease is caused by a microorganism, it is called infectious disease. Bacteria, protozoa, virus and fungi are the causes of diseases in this case. Example: diarrhoea, tuberculosis, dengue, malaria, hepatitis, etc.

Non-infectious Disease: When a disease happens because of some malfunctioning in any organ and it is not because of any microorganism, it is called non-infectious disease. A non-infectious disease may happen because of a wrong lifestyle. Some non-infectious diseases may happen because of genetic factor, Example: diabetes, arthritis, haemophilia, etc.

Types of Antimicrobials

Antibiotic: A substance which stops the growth of bacteria or kills the bacteria is called antibiotic. Antibiotic is given to treat or prevent bacterial infection. Example: streptomycin, amoxicillin, etc.

Antiviral: A substance which stops the growth of virus is called antiviral. Viral diseases are very difficult to treat. Very few effective antiviral medicines are available in the market.

Antifungal: A substance which stops the growth of fungi or kills the fungi is called antifungal.

Spreading the Infection:

By Air: Some of the pathogens (harmful and disease-causing microbes) spread through the air. For example; when a person suffering from common cold sneezes or coughs, viruses come out, they easily enter another person’s body.

By Water: Some of the pathogens spread through contaminated food and water.

By Sharing of Clothes: Ringworm spreads by sharing towels or clothes of the infected person.

Through Blood or Body Fluid: Some diseases spread from one person to another through blood or body fluid. AIDS and Hepatitis B spread this way.

Through Animals: Some animals work as agents transferring infection from one person to another. Malaria, Dengue spreads in this way and mosquito plays the role of the vector. Dengue is also spread by mosquito.