Transport Of Materials In The Living Systems


Living beings can be classified into two groups, the plants and the animals.

Species that fall under either of these categories need a proper functioning of their body to survive. Among these functions in their body, the most important of the body processes is the transport system, which enables all other body systems to function smoothly by supplying sufficient nutrients.

Plants are relatively less complex and require less food and water to survive in comparison to animals. A plant takes in water and dissolved nutrients from the soil through the roots, they are then carried into specialized tissues in the plant stem that act as a route for the water and nutrients to be carried to various parts of the plant, such as the leaves, flowers and fruits. Food from various sites is also distributed to different organs via another tissue of the plant’s transport system.

The xylem makes up a large part of a plant’s stem, especially in woody plants where the xylem has matured into a tree trunk, it is the specialized plant tissue that carries water and dissolved minerals taken in from the roots.

Translocation is the process of transporting food from the leaves, leaves are the plant’s sites for photosynthesis or "food manufacturing." Phloem is the structure in the plant, that is made up of cells that control the passage of food in the form of sugars from the leaves into different parts of the plant. The phloem is positioned just outside the xylem.

Animals Circulatory System

We discussed that animals are more complex creatures and they require more food and nutrients, this is primarily because they are able to move while plants are stationary. For animals to survive and perform they need nutrients, oxygen and water. Animals digestive system breaks down the Nutrients then they are absorbed, further they are distributed to various organs and tissues in the body. Oxygen is also needed by the animal body for various cellular processes and activities. An animal’s circulatory system is the main transport system in the body and is one of the keys that make all other bodily functions possible.

Circulatory System Process

An animal’s circulatory system consists of the heart, blood vessels i.e is the arteries, veins and capillaries, most importantly the blood.

Blood from the heart and lungs usually passes through the arteries and carries with it oxygen and nutrients to be distributed into the many organs and cells via smaller blood vessels called the capillaries. The heart functions as the pump.

After distribution of these nutrients, the blood goes into the veins and takes with it waste products, like carbon dioxide and other chemical wastes, to be eliminated via the organs that make up the excretion system.